The CCF Bushblock woodland management plan (WMP) aims to provide a management framework for the field harvesting operations of the CCF bush (PTY) Ltd. It strives to promote Namibia’s vision 2030 through the sustainable utilisation and management of natural resources in accordance with the Forest act 2001, and the Namibia forest development policy of 1998. The plan prescribes methods of harvesting, suggest harvesting targets, multiple monitoring programs (ecologic, & socio-economic), and land use objectives. By selecting monitoring targets, a business subjected to adaptive management conditions can be developed. Policies related to the WMP (harvesting, fire, land use objectives, permits, were developed as control measures to prevent counter productive activities, and ensures that harvesting is conducted in accordance to the expectations of the CCF Bushblok PTY Ltd. The management of CCF bush (PTY) Ltd develops annual operations plans (AOP). The annual operations plan streamlines the WMP and specifies potential areas for harvesting, targeted areas for harvesting, estimated biomass production, time frames for harvesting. This approach is important for the achievement of management objectives, and ensures that resources (economic, human, mechanical & other) are allocated strategically, and enhances the activities of the WMP.
In 2001, CCF and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) collaborated to find a habitat improvement programme that would be ecologically and economically viable. Research identified a business opportunity to process encroaching bush into compacted logs for use as a cooking fuel or for home heating. CCF Bush (PTY) Ltd was established to manufacture the Bushblok product. CCF Bush intends to control bush encroachment in Namibia in a more economical and sustainable way. It is an independent for profit organization which operates under it’s own management. The Cheetah Conservation Fund (CCF) is the sole owner of all the shares in CCF Bush PTY Ltd. Most stakeholders in the project are Namibians. Apart from USAID no other international stakeholders are signed up with the project. The project intends to create job opportunities for harvesters, entrepreneurs and chipping teams.
CCF Bushblok project objectives:
- To enhance the long-term survival of the cheetah and other species by restoring the Namibian savannah.
- To supply Namibian and international markets with compacted fuel log products.
- To encourage industries to use intruder bush as a raw material.
- To employ, train and empower historically disadvantaged Namibians.
- To provide business opportunities in bush harvesting, chipping and transport.
- To develop the best economic, environmental and social standards for bush harvesting, chipping, processing and packaging.
- To alleviate the over-exploitation of native Namibian trees for firewood
Namibia has the world’s largest population of cheetahs, with 90% living outside protected reserves on farmlands. Cheetahs hunt using bursts of speed in open or semi-open savannah, however as a result of unpredictable droughts and injudicious livestock farming practices, bush species are encroaching Namibian farmlands. The Namibian livestock industry revenue has been affected negatively as a result of bush encroachment (de Klerk, 2004). Since the 1960’s, the number of livestock units (LSU) declined from 1 LSU/10 hectares (ha) to 1 LSU/20 ha or 30 ha (de Klerk, 2004). The loss of rangeland productivity costs Namibia an estimated annual revenue of N$ 700 million, and affects about 65 000 households (de Klerk, 2004).
Ownership and management of the area
CCF founded in 1990, has as its mission “to be an internationally recognised centre of excellence in research and education on cheetahs and their eco-systems, working with all stakeholders to achieve best practice in the conservation and management of the world’s cheetahs”. It maintains a major public education programme and creates and disseminates education materials worldwide; conducts programs of community upliftment and predator conflict resolution; assists in the management of captive and free-ranging cheetah throughout the world; and publishes scientific papers on its research findings. CCF’s base of operations is in Namibia, which has the largest and one of the few sustainable populations of free-ranging cheetah in the world. The cheetah’s survival depends on a total ecological system of farmland management, prey species management, and habitat stability. CCF’s Namibian focus is to work with livestock farming communities in order to develop ways to reduce conflict. This is achieved by devising a conservation plan that secures habitat for the species, while still accommodating farmers’ land use needs. CCF carries out scientific research programs in areas such as cheetah population biology, cheetah ecology, cheetah health and reproduction, and human impacts on the cheetah. CCF researchers develop, test, and promote alternative land-management practices such as conservancy development, non-lethal predator control, relocation of problem cheetahs, and eco-tourism. Additionally, CCF conducts both Namibian and international education programs to raise awareness of the cheetah’s endangered status. These illustrate ways in which the species can be protected and encourage worldwide support.
CCF organisational structure
CCF is an international organisation with registered not for profit organisations in Namibia, the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom. In 1991 CCF became a Namibian Voluntary Trust and in 2002 completed registration as a not-for-profit Namibian Section 21 Company. CCF’s Namibian Board of Directors is comprised of leaders in the local community, business, and agricultural sectors. Additionally, there is an International Science Advisory Board that assists in planning and advising on research projects. CCF’s Executive Director is assisted in the management and operations of CCF by a core professional staff, short-term volunteers, and students. CCF’s International Research and Education Centre is located near Otjiwarongo on the farm Elandsvreugde (# 367). The farm base is in prime cheetah habitat and a wildlife friendly area, with neighboring farmers who believe in conservation ethics. CCF is an active member of the Waterberg conservancy which encompasses over 150000 ha of commercial farmland adjacent to the Waterberg plateau park.
Three farms are incorporated in the Cheetah Conservation Fund Forest Management Unit (FMU). Since the 17th January 2003 until present, farm Elandsvreugde (367) is registered under CCF Incorporated Association not for gain ( # 21/2002/341). This farm was acquired during 1994, and was initially registered under the International Wilderness Leadership Foundation Incorporated (WILD on the 6th December 1994. Farm Bergview (317) was acquired in 1998 and registered as Cheetahview Pty Ltd. Since the 2nd November 2001 until present, farm Boskop (324) is registered under the CCF company Khayam Kopje Reserve (PTY) LTD ( # 2000403) (number of deeds 6452).
Location and farm size
All CCF farms fall under the Otjiwarongo district, Otjozondjupa region. Both Cheetahview and Boskop farms are located within the Otjiwarongo constituency, whereas Elandsvreugde is under the Otavi constituency. Farms Boskop (16°97’54”E, 20°50’69”S = 38 km), Elandsvreugde (16° 39′ 0” E, 20° 28′ 12” S = 45 km), and Cheetahview (16°88’01”E, 20°55’41’’S = 35 km can be accessed from the district road # D2440. The CCF FMU cover a total area size of ha.
Table SEQ Table \* ARABIC 1: CCF FMU farm sizes
|Farm name||Size (ha)||Livestock camps||Game camp||Other||Number of grazing camps|
|Elandsvreugde (#367)||7300||–||5300-||2000||(+ 29 before 1980)|
|Boskop (#324)||5076||2676||+ 2400||–||+10|
The perimeter fencelines for most farms (including livestock grazing camps) are defined by cattle proof fencing (5 wire strands & + 1.5 m high). A short game proof fencing (+ 1.5 m high) surrounds the Boskop 2400 ha game camp.
“The CCF centre serves to research and display model farms. These farms have been developed to research and display predator friendly and commercially viable livestock and wildlife programs. Educational groups and visiting farmers have the opportunity to see first hand that farmers and cheetahs can coexist. The farms also researches and display innovative business initiatives such as the Bush Blok compressed fuel log, made from invasive thorn bush, and cheetah country beef, an eco label for Namibian beef that allows cheetah friendly farmers to sell their beef at a premium price nationally and oversees” (CCF, 2004). CCF’s international patron his Excellency Dr. Sam Nujoma, former president of the Republic of Namibia (1990 – 2005) officially dedicated CCF research, conservation and education Centre during July 2000 on farm Elandsvreugde. The facilities consist of a research clinic, education centre (camp lightfoot), office complex and a visitor centre for hosting conferences. The main centre also consists of a farm maintenance unit (farm barn), and staff accommodation (farm worker, professional staff and senior staff). The centre contains quarantine facilities, and three main cheetah pens with an area size of xxx adequate for xxx cheetah. The farm also consist of a 1600 ha grass field (22% of the total area size) which supports hay production, and ecotourism activities. Ongoing ecological research activities are conducted on regular basis especially monthly game counts which were designed to study the trends in population structure and habitat use of different wildlife species on the farm. Small stock farming is practiced consisting primarily of goats. In addition, Anatolian livestock guarding dogs are bred at the centre as part of the livestock guarding dog program. No large stock farming is practiced on the farm. Wildlife farming is the most dominant form of land use on the farm. During 2003, the CCF bush PTY Ltd developed 50 economic plots (1 ha each = 50 e farm). These plots were used to assess the bush biomass yield per hectare, species composition, and stem densities of the tree/shrub species and the production potential.
Farm Cheetahview contains accommodation facilities available to visitors, students and researchers. Grazing for largestock (cattle) is leased privately to farmers. Both wildlife and livestock farming is the most dominant form of land use type. Various biodiversity studies were conducted on the farm as part of the projects of the CCF bush PTY Ltd since 1998. The farm also contains accommodation facilities for the farm workers staff. Farm Boskop contains accommodation facilities for CCF professional staff, and farm worker staff. Grazing for largestock (cattle) is leased privately to farmers. Both livestock and wildlife farming are the most dominant form of land use type.
All CCF farms are located within a semi-arid environment, where the mean annual precipitation is 450 mm. The farms are geographically located between the 400 mm and 500 mm median annual rainfall isopleths. Local variations in rainfall between farms are experienced. There is marked seasonality with most rainfall occurring between November and April. There are three major seasons influencing the area climate: a wet-hot season (January – April), a dry-cold season (May – August) and an intermediate season (September – December) (Marker, 2004). The wet and intermediate seasons are characterized by extensive thundershowers and flooding, with considerable variation in the amount of precipitation between years (Barnard 1998). Maximum daily temperatures for the hottest months range between 33°C – 34°C, and the average daily minimum temperature for the coldest months varies from less than 2°C to more than 10°C (Van Der Merve, 1983; as in Erkilla & Siiskonnen, 1992). The average annual water deficit (evaporation) for CCF farms range between 1500mm – 1700mm (Mendelson et al 2002; as in de Klerk, 2004). The number of frost days experienced range from 5 – 10 (Le Roux & Esterhuyse, 1967; as in Erkilla & Siiskonen, 1992). The absolute minimum and maximum temperatures recorded in Namibia are -10°C and 48°C.
Geology and soils
The Waterberg Plateau, a 4100-km2 sandstone uplift on the eastern periphery of the farms is the dominant geological feature of the region. All CCF farms are located within the Damara sequence geologic stratum, the oldest in the Waterberg region formed between 500 – 850 million years ago.
Farm Cheetahview contains of three kopjes that arise over the flat farmland matrix at heights of 1651m 1690m and 1650m altitude above sea level respectively. On farm Elandsvreugde, a single kopje arises towards the southwestern farm boundary at height 1621 m altitude above sea level. Soil types on all CCF farms fall into two main associations: – Eutric Regosols (Cheetahview, Boskop & southwestern Elandsvreugde) and Chromic Cambisols (Elandsvreugde) (Namibia CON Info, 2004). Eutric soils are fertile and contain a high saturation base, whereas bright colours characterize chromic soils (FAO soils classification system, undated). Preliminary soil results obtained on farm Elandsvreugde during 1996 indicated that 95% of the soil samples consisted of sandy – loam texture class. In addition, soil results obtained from farm Cheetahview during 2005 indicated various soil texture class distributions on the farm (Sandy – Loam 44%, Clay-Loam 33%, Loam 19%, and Sandy-Clay-Loam 4%). (See attached appendices for map layouts 1- soil map for Namibia, 2 locations where soil sample were taken at Cheetahview and Elandsvreugde).
The lithology of sedimentary and volcanic units of farm Elandsvreugde contains the Nd damara sequence undeferentiated – mainly schist, marble, and quartzite which covers the major parts of the farm. The south – western parts of the farm contains the Cgd damaran granitic rocks undeferentiated; the Nsc – swakop group marbles undeferentiated and Nn – nossib group undeferentiated (feldspathic quartzite, quartzite, arkose, conglomerate and greywacke: minor dolomites are found (Volkmann et al, 1988).
The lithology of sedimentary and volcanic units of farm Cheetahview contains of Nd damara sequence undeferentiated consisting mainly schist, marble and quartzite which covers most parts of the farm. The Cgd damaran granitic rocks, undeferentiated, occurs mainly on the southwest parts of the farm. The Nsc swakop group marbles undeferentiated patches are located mainly from the north central parts of the farm (Volkmann et al, 1988).
The lithology of sedimentary and volcanic units of farm Boskop contains the Cgd damaran granitic rocks, undeferentiated group, which covers most parts of the farm. Isolated patches of Nsc swakop group marbles undeferentiated occurs in some parts of the farm where the most of these rock types are located towards the Southwestern parts of the farm. Other rock types Nn – nossib group undeferentiated – feldspathic quartzite, quartzite, arkose, conglomerate and greywacke: minor dolomites are less distributed (Volkmann et al, 1988).
Water resource of the farms occurs in two main forms i.e. surface and underground water sources. Water availability is disadvantaged by unpredictable climatic conditions (rainfall), and the underlying geology of the area. For most CCF farms (apart from Janhelpman) underground water aquifers are weak, limited and are found in cracks in a combination of sand, and rock (Hydrology map of Namibia, undated). Borehole developments on CCF farms were recorded to date back as far as 1930.
The Ministry of Agriculture Water and Forestry’s hydrology department registered three boreholes on Cheetahview. These boreholes were drilled up to a final depth of 43m, and were located in close proximity to earth dams. A total of four (4) boreholes were reportedly drilled on farm Boskop in close proximity with earth dams. The final depth of the wells reached 52m.
The topography of the farms is generally flat with slight undulations; consequently, rainfall run-off is slow and there are no permanent river systems on the farms. All farms occur within the moderate soil erosion risk region of Namibia (DRFN soil erosion map, undated). A number of man-made semi-permanent water reservoirs (earth dams) were developed since the 1960’s on these farms. Earth dams were developed in areas where seasonal swamps (vlei’s) occurred. Recharge to earth dams depends on seasonal rainfall. Water is channeled to earth dams via shallow stream networks, and in certain cases, man-made modifications were done to increase water flow to earth dams. A total of six earth dams are found on farm Cheetahview (3 large, an 2 small). On farm Boskop, four large earth dams are found (two are close to the main house). Elandsvreugde has a total of nine (9) earthdams.
The farms are situated in the Thornbush Savannah vegetation zone defined by Geiss (1971, as in Erkilla and Siiskonnen). Vegetation is typical of xeromorphic thornbush savannah with dominant woody plant genera consisting of Boscia, Dichrostachys, Grewia, Senegalia, Terminalia, and Vachellia. Understory vegetation is relatively sparse, although ephemeral forbs are present following rain. This region has been extensively modified over the last century through human-mediated causes compounded by natural climatic fluctuations ADDIN ENRfu (Louw and Seely, 1982; Prins and van der Jaeugd, 1993; Hoffmann, 1997; Pallet, 1997). Some native woody species such as Senegalia mellifera, Vachellia tortillis, and Dichrostachys cinerea have proliferated, and perennial grasses have been reduced throughout this area ADDIN ENRfu (Bester, 1996; Rhode, 1997). Until 1980, cattle farming was practiced on farm Elandsvreugde. Farms Boskop and Cheetahview are currently stocked with cattle, goats, sheep, horses and donkeys. Historical livestock Management practices on these farms may be responsible for the bush encroachment present. Farm Elandsvreugde contains of a large open grass field that was formerly used for maize and sunflower production.
Woodland vegetation of more than 2m high are found at waterholes and places such as seasonal rivers and streams. These areas are characterized by species such as Acacia tortillis. Sandy soil patches on the farms are dominated by woodland woody genera consisting of Combretum, Terminalia, and Lonchocarpus. The vegetation structure for most farms is classified as a short shrubland where most dominant bush is below two (2) meters high.
The CCF Bush project has conducted research on the CCF farms in order to determine the density, species composition, and distribution of the woody and herbaceous species components. In addition, approximate volume and biomass yields of bush were estimated. According to preliminary results obtained from the CCF economic plots (2003) on farm Elandsvreugde, D. cinerea (40.2%), and S. mellifera (11%) makes up 51.2 % of the total woody stem density per hectare. Encroaching species such as V. tortilis occurs in low density on this farm, and were not detected in the economic plots. This species were observed to have localized distribution such as near waterholes, or previously cleared crop fields. Two non – encroaching species such as V. fleckii (22.43%) and V. reficiens (14.%) were common. The mean number of trees, volume and biomass per hectar for all species is 5014 ( + 449), 27.32 m3 ( + 12.9) and 12.29 (+ 5.8) tons respectively (Chakanga, 2003).
On farm Cheetahview, encroaching species such as D. cinerea and S. mellifera makes up 51 % of the total woody stem density per hectare with 34.81% and 15.76% respectively. The other encroaching species V. tortilis were less abundant, and contributed approximately 7% of the total woody species stem density per hectare. The mean woody stem density per hectare was estimated to be 4480 ind/ha (+ 257). Although no surveys were conducted on farms Boskop, species such as S. mellifera were observed to occur in higher proportions when compared to farms Elandsvreugde and CheetahviewIn total, seventeen (17) tree/shrub species occurring on CCF farmland are protected.
Table SEQ Table \* ARABIC 3: List of common trees, scrub, and understory vegetation found on CCF farms (2005).
|Warm-cure albizia||Albizia anthelmintica|
|Shepherds tree||Boscia albitrunca|
|Brandy bush||Grevia flava|
|Flame acacia||Senegalia ataxacantha|
|Camel thorn||Vachellia erioloba|
|Blue thorn||Senegalia erubescens|
|Blade thorn||Senegalia fleckii|
|Candle pod acacia||Vachellia hebeclada|
|Mountain thorn||Senegalia hereroensis|
|Baloon thron||Vachellia luederitziae|
|Black thorn||Senegalia mellifera subsp. Detinens|
|False umbrella thorn||Vachellia reficience|
|Umbrella thorn||Vachellia tortilis|
|Zebra aloe||Aloe zebrine|
|White bauhinia||Bauhinia petersiana|
|Smelly shepherd’s tree||Boscia foetida|
|Trumpet thorn||Catophractes alexandri|
|Kudu bush||Combretum apiculatum|
|Lead wood||Combretum imberbe|
|Sand commiphora||Commiphora angolensis|
|Brandy bush||Grevia flava|
|Common commiphora||Commiphora pyrancathioides|
|Lavender bush||Croton gratissimus subsp. Gratissimus|
|Sickle bush||Dichrostachys cinerea subsp. Africana|
|Rough-leaved raisin||Grevia flavescens|
|Kalahari apple-leaf||Lonchocarpus nelsii|
|Bead maerua||Maerua schinzii|
|Common resin tree||Ozoroa paniculosa|
|Stink bush||Pechuel loeschea – leubnitziae|
|African wattle||Peltophorum africanum|
|Bitter karee||Rhus marlothii|
|Yellow rhizozum||Rhygosum brevispinosum|
|Camphor bush||Tarconanthus camphorates|
|Purple pod terminalia||Terminalia prunioides|
|Silver terminalia||Terminalia sericea|
|Blue green sour plum||Ximenia Americana|
|Buffalo thorn||Ziziphus mucronata|
|Tumble weed||Acrotome inflate|
|Pig weed||Amaranthus sp.|
|Wild asparagus||Asparagus sp.|
|Tsama/ melon||Citrullus lanatus|
|Wild cucumber||Coccinea sessilifolia|
|Flame lily||Gloriosa superba|
|Gemsbok bean||Tylosema esculentum|
|Wild sesame||Sesamum triphyllum|
|Elephant’s ear||Abutilon angulatum|
Table SEQ Table \* ARABIC 4: List of common grass species found on CCF farms (2005).
|Annual Three-awn||Aristida adscensionis|
|Blue Buffalo Grass||Cenchrus ciliaris|
|Bottle-brush Grass||Perotis patens|
|Broad-leaved Curly Leaf||Eragrostis rigidior|
|Broom Love Grass||Eragrostis pallens|
|Bur-bristle Grass||Setaria verticillata|
|Bushman Grass||Schmidtia kalahariensis|
|cattle grass||Urocloa brachyura|
|Common Carrot-seed Grass||Tragus berteronianus|
|Common Crowfoot||Dactyloctenium aegyptium|
|Couch Grass||Cynodon dactylon|
|Feathered Chloris||Chloris virgata|
|Finger Grass||Digitaria eriantha|
|Flaccid Finger Grass||Digitaria velutina|
|Giant Three-awn||Aristida meridionalis|
|Gonya Grass||Urochloa bolboides|
|Guinea Grass||Panicum maximum|
|Hairy Love Grass||Eragrostis tricophora|
|Herring-bone Grass||Pogonarthria squarrosa|
|Kalahari Sand Quick||Schmidtia pappophoroides|
|Large-seeded Three-awn||Aristida rhiniochloa|
|Lehmann’s Love Grass||Eragrostis lehmanniana|
|Luderitz Grass||Monelitrum luederitzianum|
|Naakte Windhalmgras||Eragrostis cyndriflora|
|Narrow-leaved Turpentine Grass||Cymbopogon pospischilii|
|Natal Red Top||Melinis repens subsp. Repens|
|Nine-awned Grass||Enneapogon cenchroides|
|Pincushion Grass||Microchloa caffra|
|Sawtooth Love Grass||Eragrostis superba|
|Shade Eragrostis||Eragrostis biflora|
|Silky Bushman Grass||Stipagrostis uniplumis|
|Small Panicum||Panicum coloratum|
|Spear Grass||Heteropogon contortus|
|Spreading Stick Grass||Aristida effuse|
|Sticky Love Grass||Eragrostis viscose|
|Stinking Grass||Bothriocloa radicans|
|Tassel Three-awn||Aristida congesta|
|Thimble Grass||Fingerhuthia africana|
|Tick Grass||Eragrostis echinochloidea|
|Wether Love Grass||Eragrostis nindensis|
|Wind grass||Eragrostis porosa|
|Wool Grass||Antephora pubescens|
|Feather top||Melinis villosum|
|Herring-bone grass||Pogonarthria flekii|
|Red grass||Themeda triandra|
The farms fall within the zone estimated to have a species count ranging between 201 – 230 types of birds (Mendelsohn & el Obeid, 2002).
Table SEQ Table \* ARABIC 5: List of common bird species on CCF farms (2005).
|Abdim’s stork||Ciconia abdimii|
|African cuckoo||Cuculus gularis|
|African hawk eagle||Hieraaetus fasciatus|
|African hoopoe||Upupa epops|
|African scops owl||Otus senegalensis|
|African spoonbill||Platalea alba|
|Alpine swift||Apus melba|
|Ant eating chat||Myrmecocichla formicivora|
|Ashy grey tit||Parus cinerascens|
|Barn owl||Tyto alba|
|Barred warbler||Camaroptera fasciola|
|Bateleur eagle||Terathopius ecaudatus|
|Bearded woodpecker||Thripias namaquus|
|Black breasted snake eagle||Circaetus gallicus|
|Black chested prinia||Prinia flavicans|
|Black cuckoo||Cuculus clamosus|
|Black eagle||Aquila verreauxii|
|Black Kite||Milvus migrans|
|Black Korhaan||Eupodotis afra|
|Black necked grebe||Podiceps nigricolis|
|Blackbreasted snake eagle||Circaetus gallicus|
|Blackcheecked waxbill||Estrilda erythronotos|
|Blackheaded heron||Ardea melanocephala|
|Blackshouldered kite||Elanus caaeruleus|
|Blacksmith Plover||Vanellus armatus|
|Blackthroated canary||Serinus astrogularis|
|Bleating warbler||Euryptila subcinnamomea|
|Blue waxbill||Uraeginthus angolensis|
|Bradfield’s hornbill||Tockus bradfieldi|
|Bronzewinged courser||Rhinoptilus chalcopterus|
|Brown snake eagle||Circaetus cinereus|
|Brownthroated Martin||Riparia paludicola|
|Burchell sandgrouse||Pterocles burcelli|
|Burchell’s glossy starling||Lamprotornis australis|
|Cape glossy starling||Lamprotornis nitens|
|Cape teal||Anas capensis|
|Cape Turtle Dove||Streptopelia capicola|
|Cape vulture||Gyps coprotheres|
|Cardinal woodpecker||Dendropicos fuscencens|
|Cattle egret||Bubulcus ibis|
|Chestnut weaver||Ploceus rubiginosus|
|Chestvented Tit Barbber||Parisoma caeruleum|
|Crimson breasted shrike||Laniarius atrococcineus|
|Crowned plover||Vanellus coronatus|
|Diederik Cuckoo||Chrysococcyx caprius|
|Double banded courser||Rhinoptilus africanus|
|Double banded sandgrouse||Pterocles bicinctus|
|Dusky Sunbird||Nectarinia fusca|
|Dwarf bittern||Ixobrychus sturmii|
|Egyptian goose||Alopochen aegiptiacus|
|European bee eater||Merops apiaster|
|European cuckoo||Cuculus canorus|
|European golden oriole||Oriolus oroulus|
|European nightjar||Caprimulgus europaeus|
|European swallow||Hirundo rostica|
|European Swift||Apus apus|
|Familiar Chat||Cercomela familiaris|
|Feral pigeon||Columba livia|
|Forktailed drongo||Dicrurus adsimilis|
|Freckled Nightjar||Camprimulgus tristigma|
|Gabar goshawk||Micronisus gabar|
|Giant eagle owl||Bubo lacteus|
|Golden breasted bunting||Emberiza flaviventris|
|Great Sparrow||Passer motitensis|
|Great spotted cuckoo||Clamator glandarius|
|Greater striped swallow||Hirundo cocullata|
|Grey headed sparrow weaver||Passer griseus|
|Grey hornbill||Tockus nasutus|
|Grey Lourie||Corythaixoides concolor|
|Greybacked finch lark||Erempterix verticalis|
|Groundscraper thrush||Turdus litsitsirupa|
|Harlequin quail||Coturnix delegorguei|
|Helmeted Guineafowl||Nimida meleagris|
|House martin||Hirundo foligula|
|Jacobin cuckoo||Clamator jacobinus|
|Kalahari Robin||Erythropygia paena|
|Knobbilled duck||Sarckidiornis melanotos|
|Kori Bustard||Ardeotis kori|
|Kurricane buttonquail||Turnix sylvatica|
|Lapped faced vulture||Torgos tracheliotus|
|Larklike bunting||Emberiza impetuani|
|Laughing Dove||Streptopelia senegalensis|
|Lesser grey shrikes||Lanicus minor|
|Lesser honeyguide||Indicator minor|
|Lesser masked weaver||Ploceus velatus|
|Lesser striped swallow||Hirundo abyssinica|
|Lilac breasted roller||Coracias caudata|
|Little swift||Apus affinis|
|Long billed crombec||Sylvietta rufescens|
|Marabou stork||Leptotilos crumeniferus|
|Marico flycatcher||Melaenornis mariquensis|
|Martial eagle||Polemaetus bellicosus|
|Melba finch||Pytilia melba|
|Monteiro’s Hornbill||Tockus monteiri|
|Namaqua dove||Onea capensis|
|Namaqua sandgrouse||Pterocles namaqua|
|Pale Chanting Goshawk||Melierax canorus|
|Palm swift||Cypsiurus parvus|
|Paradise Flycatcher||Terpsiphone viridis|
|Paradise whydah||Vidua paradisea|
|Pearlspotted owl||Glaucidium perlatum|
|Pied babbler||Turdoides bicolor|
|Pied barbet||Lybius torquatus|
|Plumcoloured Starling||Cinnyricinclus leucogaster|
|Pririt batis||Batis pirit|
|Purple roller||Coracias spatulata|
|Rattling cisticola||Cisticola chiniana|
|Red eyed bulbul||Pycnonotus nigricans|
|Red headed finch||Amadina erythrocephala|
|Redbacked Shrike||Lanicus collurio|
|Redbilled Buffalo weaver||Bubalornis niger|
|Redbilled Buffalo Weaver||Bubalornis niger|
|Redbilled francolin||Francolinus adspersus|
|Redbilled hornbill||Tockus erythrorhynchus|
|Redbilled quelea||Quelea quelea|
|Redbilled teal||Anas erythrorhyncha|
|Redbilled wood hoopoe||Phoeniculus purpureus|
|Redbreasted swallow||Hirundo semirufa|
|Redcrested Korhaan||Eupodotis ruficrista|
|Redeyed bulbul||Pycnonotus nigricans|
|Rednecked falcon||Falco chicquera|
|Rock kestrel||Falco tinnunculus|
|Rock martin||Hirundo fuligula|
|Rock pigeon||Columba guinea|
|Rosey faced lovebird||Agapornis roseicollis|
|Rufouscheeked Nightjar||Caprimulgus rufigena|
|Ruppell’s parrot||Poicephalus rueppellii|
|Scaly feathered finch||Sporopipes squamifrons|
|Scimitarbilled woodhoopoe||phoeniculus cyanomelas|
|Secretary bird||Sagittarius serpentarius|
|Shafttailed Whydah||Vidua regia|
|Short toed rockthrush||Monticola brevipes|
|Sociable weaver||Philetairus socius|
|Spotted dikkop||Burhinus capensis|
|Spotted eagle owl||Bubo africanus|
|Spotted flycatcher||Muscicapa striata|
|Steppe buzzard||Buteo buteo vulpinus|
|Swainson’s francolin||Francolinus swainsonii|
|Swallowtailed bee eater||Merops hirundineus|
|Tawny eagle||Aquila rapax|
|Three banded plover||Charadrius tricollaris|
|Threestreaked tchagra||Tchagra australis|
|Tinkling cisticola||Cisticola rufilata|
|Violet eared waxbill||Uraeginthus granatinus|
|Wahlberg’s eagle||Aquila wahlbergi|
|Wattled starling||Creatophora cinerea|
|Western red footed kestrel||Falco vespertinus|
|White backed vulture||Gyps africanus|
|White browed sparrow weaver||Plocepassar mahali|
|White rumped swift||Apus caffer|
|Whitebrowed sparrow weaver||Plocepassar mahali|
|Whitefaced duck||Dendrocygna viduata|
|Whitefaced owl||Otus leucotis|
|Woodland kingfisher||Halcyon senegalensis|
|Yellow billed kite||milvus migrans parasitus|
|Yellow Canary||Serinus flaviventris|
|Yellowbellied eremomela||Eremomela icteropygialis|
|Yellowbilled hornbill||Tockus flavirostris|
|Yellowbilled kite||Milvus migrans parasitus|
Table SEQ Table \* ARABIC 6: List of common mammal species found on CCF farms (2005).
|African wild cat||Felis lybica|
|Banded mongoose||Mungos mungos|
|bateared fox||Otocyon megalotis|
|Black backed jackal||Canis mesomelas|
|Brown hyaena||Hyaena brunnea|
|Burchell’s zebra||Equus burcelli|
|Cape hare||Pedeles capensis|
|Chachma baboon||Papio cynocephalus|
|Ground squirrel||Xerus inauris|
|Honey badger||Mellivora capensis|
|Lesser bushbaby||Galago moholi|
|Red hartebeest||Alcelaphus beselaphus|
|Slender mongoose||Galerella sanguinea|
|Small spotted genet||Genetta genetta|
|Striped polecat||Ictonyx striatus|
|Yellow mongoose||Cynictis penicillata|
Table SEQ Table \* ARABIC 7: List of common small mammals found on CCF farms (2005).
|Black tailed tree rat||Thallomys nigricauda|
|Bushveld gerbil||Tatera leugogaster|
|Desert pygmy mouse||Mus indutus|
|Fat mouse||Steatomys pratensis|
|Highveld gerbil||Tatera brantsii|
|House mouse||Mus musculus|
|Large-eared mouse||Malacothrix typica|
|Lesser savanna door mouse||Graphiurus parvus|
|Namaqua rock mouse||Aesthomys namaquensis|
|Pouched mouse||Saccostomus capestris|
|Pygmy hairy footed gerbil||Gerbillurus paeba|
|Red veld rat||Aesthomys chrysophylus|
|Rock door mouse||Graphiurus platyops|
|Short tailed gerbil||Desmodillus auricolaris|
|Single striped mouse||Lemniscomys rosalia|
|Striped mouse||Rhabdomys pumilio|
|Woodland door mouse||Graphiurus murinus|
|Woosnam’s desert rat||Aestomys woosnami|
CCF Bush Pty Ltd will conduct operations as allowed on Cheetah Conservation Fund forest lands in the long term in ways compatible with FSC Principles and Criteria. “Forest Lands” in this context are lands which are managed to some extent for production of biomass.
CCF Bush Pty Ltd will insure that forestry practices do not interfere with the research and farming activities on CCF farms. This involves consultation with relevant projects and requires that consideration be given to fostering grass growth. Thus, large amounts of felled wood may be left un-chipped as protection for seedlings. Run-off of rainwater into dams is to be encouraged.
CCF Bush Pty Ltd may harvest roadsides and fence lines to facilitate research/farm operations even if the wood will not be used in the factory.
CCF Bush Pty Ltd is a demonstration project: it may incur an ongoing annual loss and may undertake activities that have a negative effect on profitability of the company.
CCF Bush (Pty) Ltd will produce and market compacted wood fuel briquettes (Bushblok©), or other biomass products, derived from thinned indigenous invader species (bush encroachment). The products may be sold locally and internationally.
The raw product will be harvested from three farms owned by the Cheetah Conservation Fund (Farms Cheetahview, Boskop, and Elandsvreugde). These mixed-use farms are contiguous and adjacent to a main class “D” road: it is most economical to harvest from them. The total area of the farms is 17,445Ha.
Only bush harvested according to FSC principles and only originating from those three farms may be incorporated into the CCF BUSH Pty Ltd Chain of Custody (COC) scheme. This is our Forest Management Unit (FMU).
Cheetah Conservation Fund, the owner of CCF Bush Pty Ltd, manages five other farms. Two (Osonanga Reserve and Osonanga Farming) are ecological reserve lands and three (Bynaadar, Belebeno, and JanHelpman) are cattle ranches. CCF Bush (Pty) Ltd will not undertake activities on those farms and has no responsibility for those farms.
CCF Bush mission statements are:
- To promote the development of a biomass industry in Namibia that utilizes the invasive thornbush.
- to harvest, chip and manufacture compacted fuel logs from indigenous invader timber species and market this quality “Bushblok” both locally and internationally;
- to manufacture a product meeting with customer requirements in terms of source and specifications; furthermore, to introduce strict control systems to ensure that the product is sourced from certified farms belonging to CCF;
- to introduce systems minimizing impact on the environment with respect to harvesting, chipping extraction and haulage of the chipped raw material.
- to make strategic decisions following Forest Stewardship Council Principles and Criteria thereby preventing exploitation of indigenous bush;
- to apply for valid harvest Permits issued by Namibian Directorate of Forestry; environmental considerations will always be foremost in the company’s decision- making process.
- to give special consideration to ensure the optimal utilization of local labour resources, thus ensuring the local distribution of employment and benefits; the company undertakes to provide a safe and harmonious working environment for employees, thereby encouraging a prosperous, loyal and productive workforce.
CCF Bush Objectives are:
- to develop an ecological and economical sustainable thinning programme to help restore natural savannah grasslands for the long term preservation of cheetah and other plains animals in Namibia;
- to promote and when feasible to demonstrate the utilization of the encroaching bush for energy production and/or the production of products other than traditional charcoal.
- to provide the facilities and management structure for employees to consistently meet budgeted production targets and quality specifications;
- to inculcate the need to strictly adhere to CCF standards for Environmental Protection, Working Conditions and Health and Safety amongst the employees;
- to provide opportunities to develop the entrepreneurial flair of locals as contractors for the company; assuring that appointed contractors adhere to CCF Bush’s obligation to uphold the Forest Stewardship Council’s Principles and Critreria in all operations;