The CCF Bushblock woodland management plan (WMP) aims to provide a management framework for the field harvesting operations of the CCF bush (PTY) Ltd. It strives to promote Namibia’s vision 2030 through the sustainable utilisation and management of natural resources in accordance with the Forest act 2001, and the Namibia forest development policy of 1998. The plan prescribes methods of harvesting, suggest harvesting targets, multiple monitoring programs (ecologic, & socio-economic), and land use objectives. By selecting monitoring targets, a business subjected to adaptive management conditions can be developed. Policies related to the WMP (harvesting, fire, land use objectives, permits, were developed as control measures to prevent counter productive activities, and ensures that harvesting is conducted in accordance to the expectations of the CCF Bushblok PTY Ltd. The management of CCF bush (PTY) Ltd develops annual operations plans (AOP). The annual operations plan streamlines the WMP and specifies potential areas for harvesting, targeted areas for harvesting, estimated biomass production, time frames for harvesting. This approach is important for the achievement of management objectives, and ensures that resources (economic, human, mechanical & other) are allocated strategically, and enhances the activities of the WMP.

In 2001, CCF and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) collaborated to find a habitat improvement programme that would be ecologically and economically viable. Research identified a business opportunity to process encroaching bush into compacted logs for use as a cooking fuel or for home heating. CCF Bush (PTY) Ltd was established to manufacture the Bushblok product. CCF Bush intends to control bush encroachment in Namibia in a more economical and sustainable way. It is an independent for profit organization which operates under it’s own management. The Cheetah Conservation Fund (CCF) is the sole owner of all the shares in CCF Bush PTY Ltd. Most stakeholders in the project are Namibians. Apart from USAID no other international stakeholders are signed up with the project. The project intends to create job opportunities for harvesters, entrepreneurs and chipping teams.

CCF Bushblok project objectives:

  1. To enhance the long-term survival of the cheetah and other species by restoring the Namibian savannah.
  2. To supply Namibian and international markets with compacted fuel log products.
  3. To encourage industries to use intruder bush as a raw material.
  4. To employ, train and empower historically disadvantaged Namibians.
  5. To provide business opportunities in bush harvesting, chipping and transport.
  6. To develop the best economic, environmental and social standards for bush harvesting, chipping, processing and packaging.
  7. To alleviate the over-exploitation of native Namibian trees for firewood

Namibia has the world’s largest population of cheetahs, with 90% living outside protected reserves on farmlands. Cheetahs hunt using bursts of speed in open or semi-open savannah, however as a result of unpredictable droughts and injudicious livestock farming practices, bush species are encroaching Namibian farmlands. The Namibian livestock industry revenue has been affected negatively as a result of bush encroachment (de Klerk, 2004). Since the 1960’s, the number of livestock units (LSU) declined from 1 LSU/10 hectares (ha) to 1 LSU/20 ha or 30 ha (de Klerk, 2004). The loss of rangeland productivity costs Namibia an estimated annual revenue of N$ 700 million, and affects about 65 000 households (de Klerk, 2004).

Ownership and management of the area

CCF founded in 1990, has as its mission “to be an internationally recognised centre of excellence in research and education on cheetahs and their eco-systems, working with all stakeholders to achieve best practice in the conservation and management of the world’s cheetahs”. It maintains a major public education programme and creates and disseminates education materials worldwide; conducts programs of community upliftment and predator conflict resolution; assists in the management of captive and free-ranging cheetah throughout the world; and publishes scientific papers on its research findings. CCF’s base of operations is in Namibia, which has the largest and one of the few sustainable populations of free-ranging cheetah in the world.  The cheetah’s survival depends on a total ecological system of farmland management, prey species management, and habitat stability. CCF’s Namibian focus is to work with livestock farming communities in order to develop ways to reduce conflict.  This is achieved by devising a conservation plan that secures habitat for the species, while still accommodating farmers’ land use needs. CCF carries out scientific research programs in areas such as cheetah population biology, cheetah ecology, cheetah health and reproduction, and human impacts on the cheetah.  CCF researchers develop, test, and promote alternative land-management practices such as conservancy development, non-lethal predator control, relocation of problem cheetahs, and eco-tourism. Additionally, CCF conducts both Namibian and international education programs to raise awareness of the cheetah’s endangered status.  These illustrate ways in which the species can be protected and encourage worldwide support.

CCF organisational structure

CCF is an international organisation with registered not for profit organisations in Namibia, the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom.  In 1991 CCF became a Namibian Voluntary Trust and in 2002 completed registration as a not-for-profit Namibian Section 21 Company. CCF’s Namibian Board of Directors is comprised of leaders in the local community, business, and agricultural sectors. Additionally, there is an International Science Advisory Board that assists in planning and advising on research projects. CCF’s Executive Director is assisted in the management and operations of CCF by a core professional staff, short-term volunteers, and students. CCF’s International Research and Education Centre is located near Otjiwarongo on the farm Elandsvreugde (# 367). The farm base is in prime cheetah habitat and a wildlife friendly area, with neighboring farmers who believe in conservation ethics. CCF is an active member of the Waterberg conservancy which encompasses over 150000 ha of commercial farmland adjacent to the Waterberg plateau park.

Three  farms are incorporated in the Cheetah Conservation Fund Forest Management Unit (FMU).  Since the 17th January 2003 until present, farm Elandsvreugde (367) is registered under CCF Incorporated Association not for gain ( # 21/2002/341). This farm was acquired during 1994, and was initially registered under the International Wilderness Leadership Foundation Incorporated (WILD on the 6th December 1994. Farm Bergview (317) was acquired in 1998 and registered as Cheetahview Pty Ltd. Since the 2nd November 2001 until present, farm Boskop (324) is registered under the CCF company Khayam Kopje Reserve (PTY) LTD ( # 2000403) (number of deeds 6452).

Physical descriptions

Location and farm size

All CCF farms fall under the Otjiwarongo district, Otjozondjupa region. Both Cheetahview and Boskop farms are located within the Otjiwarongo constituency, whereas Elandsvreugde is under the Otavi constituency. Farms Boskop (16°97’54”E, 20°50’69”S = 38 km), Elandsvreugde (16° 39′ 0” E, 20° 28′ 12” S = 45 km), and Cheetahview (16°88’01”E, 20°55’41’’S = 35 km can be accessed from the district road # D2440. The CCF FMU cover a total area size of  ha.

Table  SEQ Table \* ARABIC 1: CCF FMU farm sizes

Farm name Size (ha) Livestock camps Game camp Other Number of grazing camps
Elandsvreugde (#367) 7300 5300- 2000 (+ 29 before 1980)
CheetahView (#317) 5046 5046 15
Boskop (#324) 5076 2676 ­+ 2400 +10
Total 17,422 7,722 7,700 2000 + 25

The perimeter fencelines for most farms (including livestock grazing camps) are defined by cattle proof fencing (5 wire strands & + 1.5 m high).  A short game proof fencing (+ 1.5 m high) surrounds the Boskop 2400 ha game camp.

Farm objectives

“The CCF centre serves to research and display model farms. These farms have been developed to research and display predator friendly and commercially viable livestock and wildlife programs. Educational groups and visiting farmers have the opportunity to see first hand that farmers and cheetahs can coexist. The farms also researches and display innovative business initiatives such as the Bush Blok compressed fuel log, made from invasive thorn bush, and cheetah country beef, an eco label for Namibian beef that allows cheetah friendly farmers to sell their beef at a premium price nationally and oversees” (CCF, 2004). CCF’s international patron his Excellency Dr. Sam Nujoma, former president of the Republic of Namibia (1990 – 2005) officially dedicated CCF research, conservation and education Centre during July 2000 on farm Elandsvreugde. The facilities consist of a research clinic, education centre (camp lightfoot), office complex and a visitor centre for hosting conferences. The main centre also consists of a farm maintenance unit (farm barn), and staff accommodation (farm worker, professional staff and senior staff). The centre contains quarantine facilities, and three main cheetah pens with an area size of xxx adequate for xxx cheetah. The farm also consist of a 1600 ha grass field (22% of the total area size) which supports hay production, and ecotourism activities. Ongoing ecological research activities are conducted on regular basis especially monthly game counts which were designed to study the trends in population structure and habitat use of different wildlife species on the farm. Small stock farming is practiced consisting primarily of goats. In addition, Anatolian livestock guarding dogs are bred at the centre as part of the livestock guarding dog program. No large stock farming is practiced on the farm. Wildlife farming is the most dominant form of land use on the farm. During 2003, the CCF bush PTY Ltd developed 50 economic plots (1 ha each = 50 e farm). These plots were used to assess the bush biomass yield per hectare, species composition, and stem densities of the tree/shrub species and the production potential.

Farm Cheetahview contains accommodation facilities available to visitors, students and researchers. Grazing for largestock (cattle) is leased privately to farmers. Both wildlife and livestock farming is the most dominant form of land use type. Various biodiversity studies were conducted on the farm as part of the projects of the CCF bush PTY Ltd since 1998. The farm also contains accommodation facilities for the farm workers staff. Farm Boskop contains accommodation facilities for CCF professional staff, and farm worker staff. Grazing for largestock (cattle) is leased privately to farmers. Both livestock and wildlife farming are the most dominant form of land use type.


All CCF farms are located within a semi-arid environment, where the mean annual precipitation is 450 mm. The farms are geographically located between the 400 mm and 500 mm median annual rainfall isopleths. Local variations in rainfall between farms are experienced. There is marked seasonality with most rainfall occurring between November and April. There are three major seasons influencing the area climate: a wet-hot season (January – April), a dry-cold season (May – August) and an intermediate season (September – December) (Marker, 2004). The wet and intermediate seasons are characterized by extensive thundershowers and flooding, with considerable variation in the amount of precipitation between years (Barnard 1998). Maximum daily temperatures for the hottest months range between 33°C – 34°C, and the average daily minimum temperature for the coldest months varies from less than 2°C to more than 10°C (Van Der Merve, 1983; as in Erkilla & Siiskonnen, 1992). The average annual water deficit (evaporation) for CCF farms range between 1500mm – 1700mm (Mendelson et al 2002; as in de Klerk, 2004). The number of frost days experienced range from 5 – 10 (Le Roux & Esterhuyse, 1967; as in Erkilla & Siiskonen, 1992). The absolute minimum and maximum temperatures recorded in Namibia are -10°C and 48°C.

Geology and soils

The Waterberg Plateau, a 4100-km2 sandstone uplift on the eastern periphery of the farms is the dominant geological feature of the region. All CCF farms are located within the Damara sequence geologic stratum, the oldest in the Waterberg region formed between 500 – 850 million years ago.

Farm Cheetahview contains of three kopjes that arise over the flat farmland matrix at heights of 1651m 1690m and 1650m altitude above sea level respectively. On farm Elandsvreugde, a single kopje arises towards the southwestern farm boundary at height 1621 m altitude above sea level. Soil types on all CCF farms fall into two main associations: – Eutric Regosols (Cheetahview, Boskop & southwestern Elandsvreugde) and Chromic Cambisols (Elandsvreugde) (Namibia CON Info, 2004). Eutric soils are fertile and contain a high saturation base, whereas bright colours characterize chromic soils (FAO soils classification system, undated). Preliminary soil results obtained on farm Elandsvreugde during 1996 indicated that 95% of the soil samples consisted of sandy – loam texture class. In addition, soil results obtained from farm Cheetahview during 2005 indicated various soil texture class distributions on the farm (Sandy – Loam 44%, Clay-Loam 33%, Loam 19%, and Sandy-Clay-Loam 4%). (See attached appendices for map layouts 1- soil map for Namibia, 2 locations where soil sample were taken at Cheetahview and Elandsvreugde).

The lithology of sedimentary and volcanic units of farm Elandsvreugde contains the Nd damara sequence undeferentiated – mainly schist, marble, and quartzite which covers the major parts of the farm. The south – western parts of the farm contains the Cgd damaran granitic rocks undeferentiated; the Nsc – swakop group marbles undeferentiated and Nn – nossib group undeferentiated (feldspathic quartzite, quartzite, arkose, conglomerate and greywacke: minor dolomites are found (Volkmann et al, 1988).

The lithology of sedimentary and volcanic units of farm Cheetahview contains of Nd damara sequence undeferentiated consisting mainly schist, marble and quartzite which covers most parts of the farm. The Cgd damaran granitic rocks, undeferentiated, occurs mainly on the southwest parts of the farm. The Nsc swakop group marbles undeferentiated patches are located mainly from the north central parts of the farm (Volkmann et al, 1988).

The lithology of sedimentary and volcanic units of farm Boskop contains the Cgd damaran granitic rocks, undeferentiated group, which covers most parts of the farm. Isolated patches of Nsc swakop group marbles undeferentiated occurs in some parts of the farm where the most of these rock types are located towards the Southwestern parts of the farm. Other rock types Nn – nossib group undeferentiated – feldspathic quartzite, quartzite, arkose, conglomerate and greywacke: minor dolomites are less distributed (Volkmann et al, 1988).

Water resources

Water resource of the farms occurs in two main forms i.e. surface and underground water sources. Water availability is disadvantaged by unpredictable climatic conditions (rainfall), and the underlying geology of the area. For most CCF farms (apart from Janhelpman) underground water aquifers are weak, limited and are found in cracks in a combination of sand, and rock (Hydrology map of Namibia, undated). Borehole developments on CCF farms were recorded to date back as far as 1930.

The Ministry of Agriculture Water and Forestry’s hydrology department registered three boreholes on Cheetahview. These boreholes were drilled up to a final depth of 43m, and were located in close proximity to earth dams. A total of four (4) boreholes were reportedly drilled on farm Boskop in close proximity with earth dams. The final depth of the wells reached 52m.

The topography of the farms is generally flat with slight undulations; consequently, rainfall run-off is slow and there are no permanent river systems on the farms. All farms occur within the moderate soil erosion risk region of Namibia (DRFN soil erosion map, undated). A number of man-made semi-permanent water reservoirs (earth dams) were developed since the 1960’s on these farms. Earth dams were developed in areas where seasonal swamps (vlei’s) occurred. Recharge to earth dams depends on seasonal rainfall. Water is channeled to earth dams via shallow stream networks, and in certain cases, man-made modifications were done to increase water flow to earth dams. A total of six earth dams are found on farm Cheetahview (3 large, an 2 small). On farm Boskop, four large earth dams are found (two are close to the main house). Elandsvreugde has a total of nine (9) earthdams.


The farms are situated in the Thornbush Savannah vegetation zone defined by Geiss (1971, as in Erkilla and Siiskonnen). Vegetation is typical of xeromorphic thornbush savannah with dominant woody plant genera consisting of  Boscia, Dichrostachys, Grewia, SenegaliaTerminalia, and Vachellia.  Understory vegetation is relatively sparse, although ephemeral forbs are present following rain.  This region has been extensively modified over the last century through human-mediated causes compounded by natural climatic fluctuations  ADDIN ENRfu (Louw and Seely, 1982; Prins and van der Jaeugd, 1993; Hoffmann, 1997; Pallet, 1997).  Some native woody species such as Senegalia mellifera, Vachellia tortillis, and Dichrostachys cinerea have proliferated, and perennial grasses have been reduced throughout this area  ADDIN ENRfu (Bester, 1996; Rhode, 1997). Until 1980, cattle farming was practiced on farm Elandsvreugde. Farms Boskop and Cheetahview are currently stocked with cattle, goats, sheep, horses and donkeys. Historical livestock Management practices on these farms may be responsible for the bush encroachment present. Farm Elandsvreugde contains of a large open grass field that was formerly used for maize and sunflower production.

Woodland vegetation of more than 2m high are found at waterholes and places such as seasonal rivers and streams. These areas are characterized by species such as Acacia tortillis. Sandy soil patches on the farms are dominated by woodland woody genera consisting of Combretum, Terminalia, and Lonchocarpus. The vegetation structure for most farms is classified as a short shrubland where most dominant bush is below two (2) meters high.

Forest inventory

Woody vegetation

The CCF Bush project has conducted research on the CCF farms in order to determine the density, species composition, and distribution of the woody and herbaceous species components. In addition, approximate volume and biomass yields of bush were estimated. According to preliminary results obtained from the CCF economic plots (2003) on farm Elandsvreugde, D. cinerea (40.2%), and S. mellifera (11%) makes up 51.2 % of the total woody stem density per hectare. Encroaching species such as V. tortilis occurs in low density on this farm, and were not detected in the economic plots. This species were observed to have localized distribution such as near waterholes, or previously cleared crop fields. Two non – encroaching species such as V. fleckii (22.43%) and V. reficiens (14.%) were common. The mean number of trees, volume and biomass per hectar for all species is 5014 ( + 449), 27.32 m3 ( + 12.9) and 12.29 (+ 5.8) tons respectively (Chakanga, 2003).

On farm Cheetahview, encroaching species such as D. cinerea and S. mellifera makes up 51 % of the total woody stem density per hectare with 34.81% and 15.76% respectively. The other encroaching species V. tortilis were less abundant, and contributed approximately 7% of the total woody species stem density per hectare. The mean woody stem density per hectare was estimated to be 4480 ind/ha (+ 257). Although no surveys were conducted on farms Boskop, species such as S. mellifera were observed to occur in higher proportions when compared to farms Elandsvreugde and CheetahviewIn total, seventeen (17) tree/shrub species occurring on CCF farmland are protected.

Table  SEQ Table \* ARABIC 3: List of common trees, scrub, and understory vegetation found on CCF farms (2005).

Common Name Taxa
Warm-cure albizia Albizia anthelmintica
Shepherds tree Boscia albitrunca
Brandy bush Grevia flava
Flame acacia Senegalia ataxacantha
Camel thorn Vachellia erioloba
Blue thorn Senegalia erubescens
Blade thorn Senegalia fleckii
Candle pod acacia Vachellia hebeclada
Mountain thorn Senegalia hereroensis
 Baloon thron Vachellia luederitziae
Black thorn Senegalia mellifera subsp. Detinens
False umbrella thorn Vachellia reficience
Umbrella thorn Vachellia tortilis
Aloe littoralis
Zebra aloe Aloe zebrine
White bauhinia Bauhinia petersiana
Smelly shepherd’s tree Boscia foetida
Trumpet thorn Catophractes alexandri 
Kudu bush Combretum apiculatum
Bushwillow Combretum collinum
Lead wood Combretum imberbe
Sand commiphora Commiphora angolensis
Brandy bush Grevia flava
Common commiphora Commiphora pyrancathioides
Lavender bush Croton gratissimus subsp. Gratissimus
Sickle bush Dichrostachys cinerea subsp. Africana
Ehretia rigida
Rough-leaved raisin Grevia flavescens
Lyceum eeni
Kalahari apple-leaf Lonchocarpus nelsii
Bead maerua Maerua  schinzii
Maerua juncea
Common resin tree Ozoroa paniculosa
Stink bush Pechuel loeschea – leubnitziae
African wattle Peltophorum africanum
Phaeoptilum spinosum
Karee Rhus lanchea
Bitter karee Rhus marlothii
Rhus volky
Yellow rhizozum Rhygosum brevispinosum
Camphor bush Tarconanthus camphorates
Purple pod terminalia Terminalia prunioides
Silver terminalia Terminalia sericea
Blue green sour plum Ximenia Americana
Buffalo thorn Ziziphus mucronata
Pseudogaltonia clavata
  Mundulea sericea
Tumble weed Acrotome inflate
Pig weed Amaranthus sp.
Wild asparagus Asparagus sp.
Tsama/ melon Citrullus lanatus
Wild cucumber Coccinea sessilifolia
  Corchorus asplenifolius
Flame lily Gloriosa superba
  Tribulis terestris
  Solanum delagoense
Gemsbok bean Tylosema esculentum
  Blepharis diversispina
(Forb) Cyperus fulgens
  Cyperus fulgens
  Ledebouria spp.
Wild sesame Sesamum triphyllum
Elephant’s ear Abutilon angulatum



Table  SEQ Table \* ARABIC 4: List of common grass species found on CCF farms (2005).

Common name Taxa
Annual Three-awn Aristida adscensionis
Blue Buffalo Grass Cenchrus ciliaris
Bottle-brush Grass Perotis patens
Broad-leaved Curly Leaf Eragrostis rigidior
Broom Love Grass Eragrostis pallens
Bur-bristle Grass Setaria verticillata
Bushman Grass Schmidtia kalahariensis
cattle grass Urocloa brachyura
Common Carrot-seed Grass Tragus berteronianus
Common Crowfoot Dactyloctenium aegyptium
Couch Grass Cynodon dactylon
Feathered Chloris Chloris virgata
Finger Grass Digitaria eriantha
Flaccid Finger Grass Digitaria velutina
Giant Three-awn Aristida meridionalis
Gonya Grass Urochloa bolboides
Guinea Grass Panicum maximum
Hairy Love Grass Eragrostis tricophora
Herring-bone Grass Pogonarthria squarrosa
Kalahari Sand Quick Schmidtia pappophoroides
Klipgras Enneapogon scaber
Large-seeded Three-awn Aristida rhiniochloa
Lehmann’s Love Grass Eragrostis lehmanniana
Luderitz Grass Monelitrum luederitzianum
Naakte Windhalmgras Eragrostis cyndriflora
Narrow-leaved Turpentine Grass Cymbopogon pospischilii
Natal Red Top Melinis repens subsp. Repens
Nine-awned Grass Enneapogon cenchroides
Pincushion Grass Microchloa caffra
Pluimarmgras Brachiaria paeoides
Sawtooth Love Grass Eragrostis superba
Schoenfelder-se-armgras Brachiaria schoenfelderi
Shade Eragrostis Eragrostis biflora
Silky Bushman Grass Stipagrostis uniplumis
Small Panicum Panicum coloratum
Spear Grass Heteropogon contortus
Spreading Stick Grass Aristida effuse
Sticky Love Grass Eragrostis viscose
Stinking Grass Bothriocloa radicans
Tassel Three-awn Aristida congesta
Thimble Grass Fingerhuthia africana
Tick Grass Eragrostis echinochloidea
Vleipluimgras Eragrostis rotifer
Wether Love Grass Eragrostis nindensis
Wind grass Eragrostis porosa
Wool Grass Antephora pubescens
Feather top Melinis villosum
Pennisetum setaceum
Herring-bone grass Pogonarthria flekii
Setaria ustilata
Sporobolus coromandelianus
T. minimus
Red grass Themeda triandra



The farms fall within the zone estimated to have a species count ranging between 201 – 230 types of birds (Mendelsohn & el Obeid, 2002).

Table  SEQ Table \* ARABIC 5: List of common bird species on CCF farms (2005).

Common name Taxa
Abdim’s stork Ciconia abdimii
African cuckoo Cuculus gularis
African hawk eagle Hieraaetus fasciatus
African hoopoe Upupa epops
African scops owl Otus senegalensis
African spoonbill Platalea alba
Alpine swift Apus melba
Ant eating chat Myrmecocichla formicivora
Ashy grey tit Parus cinerascens
Barn owl Tyto alba
Barred warbler Camaroptera fasciola
Bateleur eagle Terathopius ecaudatus
Bearded woodpecker Thripias namaquus
Black breasted snake eagle Circaetus gallicus
Black chested prinia Prinia flavicans
Black cuckoo Cuculus clamosus
Black eagle Aquila verreauxii
Black Kite Milvus migrans
Black Korhaan Eupodotis afra
Black necked grebe Podiceps nigricolis
Blackbreasted snake eagle Circaetus gallicus
Blackcheecked waxbill Estrilda erythronotos
Blackheaded heron Ardea melanocephala
Blackshouldered kite Elanus caaeruleus
Blacksmith Plover Vanellus armatus
Blackthroated canary Serinus astrogularis
Bleating warbler Euryptila subcinnamomea
Blue waxbill Uraeginthus angolensis
Bradfield’s hornbill Tockus bradfieldi
Bronzewinged courser Rhinoptilus chalcopterus
Brown snake eagle Circaetus cinereus
Brownthroated Martin Riparia paludicola
Brubru Nilaus afer
Burchell sandgrouse Pterocles burcelli
Burchell’s glossy starling Lamprotornis australis
Cape glossy starling Lamprotornis nitens
Cape teal Anas capensis
Cape Turtle Dove Streptopelia capicola
Cape vulture Gyps coprotheres
Cardinal woodpecker Dendropicos fuscencens
Cattle egret Bubulcus ibis
Chestnut weaver Ploceus rubiginosus
Chestvented Tit Barbber Parisoma caeruleum
Crimson breasted shrike Laniarius atrococcineus
Crowned plover Vanellus coronatus
Dabchick Tachybaptus ruficollis
Diederik Cuckoo Chrysococcyx caprius
Double banded courser Rhinoptilus africanus
Double banded sandgrouse Pterocles bicinctus
Dusky Sunbird Nectarinia fusca
Dwarf bittern Ixobrychus sturmii
Egyptian goose Alopochen aegiptiacus
European bee eater Merops apiaster
European cuckoo Cuculus canorus
European golden oriole Oriolus oroulus
European nightjar Caprimulgus europaeus
European swallow Hirundo rostica
European Swift Apus apus
Familiar Chat Cercomela familiaris
Feral pigeon Columba livia
Forktailed drongo Dicrurus adsimilis
Freckled Nightjar Camprimulgus tristigma
Gabar goshawk Micronisus gabar
Giant eagle owl Bubo lacteus
Golden breasted bunting Emberiza flaviventris
Great Sparrow Passer motitensis
Great spotted cuckoo Clamator glandarius
Greater striped swallow Hirundo cocullata
Grey headed sparrow weaver Passer griseus
Grey hornbill Tockus nasutus
Grey Lourie Corythaixoides concolor
Greybacked finch lark Erempterix verticalis
Groundscraper thrush Turdus litsitsirupa
Gymnogene Polyboroides typus
Hamerkop Scopus umbreta
Harlequin quail Coturnix delegorguei
Helmeted Guineafowl Nimida meleagris
House martin Hirundo foligula
Jacobin cuckoo Clamator jacobinus
Kalahari Robin Erythropygia paena
Knobbilled duck Sarckidiornis melanotos
Kori Bustard Ardeotis kori
Kurricane buttonquail Turnix sylvatica
Lapped faced vulture Torgos tracheliotus
Larklike bunting Emberiza impetuani
Laughing Dove Streptopelia senegalensis
Lesser grey shrikes Lanicus minor
Lesser honeyguide Indicator minor
Lesser masked weaver Ploceus velatus
Lesser striped swallow Hirundo abyssinica
Lilac breasted roller Coracias caudata
Little swift Apus affinis
Long billed crombec Sylvietta rufescens
Marabou stork Leptotilos crumeniferus
Marico flycatcher Melaenornis mariquensis
Martial eagle Polemaetus bellicosus
Melba finch Pytilia melba
Monteiro’s Hornbill Tockus monteiri
Moorhen Gallinula chloropus
Namaqua dove Onea capensis
Namaqua sandgrouse Pterocles namaqua
Ostrich Struthio camelus
Pale Chanting Goshawk Melierax canorus
Palm swift Cypsiurus parvus
Paradise Flycatcher Terpsiphone viridis
Paradise whydah Vidua paradisea
Pearlspotted owl Glaucidium perlatum
Pied babbler Turdoides bicolor
Pied barbet Lybius torquatus
Plumcoloured Starling Cinnyricinclus leucogaster
Pririt batis Batis pirit
Purple roller Coracias spatulata
Rattling cisticola Cisticola chiniana
Red eyed bulbul Pycnonotus nigricans
Red headed finch Amadina erythrocephala
Redbacked Shrike Lanicus collurio
Redbilled Buffalo weaver Bubalornis niger
Redbilled Buffalo Weaver Bubalornis niger
Redbilled francolin Francolinus adspersus
Redbilled hornbill Tockus erythrorhynchus
Redbilled quelea Quelea quelea
Redbilled teal Anas erythrorhyncha
Redbilled wood hoopoe Phoeniculus purpureus
Redbreasted swallow Hirundo semirufa
Redcrested Korhaan Eupodotis ruficrista
Redeyed bulbul Pycnonotus nigricans
Rednecked falcon Falco chicquera
Rock kestrel Falco tinnunculus
Rock martin Hirundo fuligula
Rock pigeon Columba guinea
Rosey faced lovebird Agapornis roseicollis
Rufouscheeked Nightjar Caprimulgus rufigena
Ruppell’s parrot Poicephalus rueppellii
Scaly feathered finch Sporopipes squamifrons
Scimitarbilled woodhoopoe phoeniculus cyanomelas
Secretary bird Sagittarius serpentarius
Shafttailed Whydah Vidua regia
Short toed rockthrush Monticola brevipes
Sociable weaver Philetairus socius
Spotted dikkop Burhinus capensis
Spotted eagle owl Bubo africanus
Spotted flycatcher Muscicapa striata
Steppe buzzard Buteo buteo vulpinus
Swainson’s francolin Francolinus swainsonii
Swallowtailed bee eater Merops hirundineus
Tawny eagle Aquila rapax
Three banded plover Charadrius tricollaris
Threestreaked tchagra Tchagra australis
Tinkling cisticola Cisticola rufilata
Violet eared waxbill Uraeginthus granatinus
Wahlberg’s eagle Aquila wahlbergi
Wattled starling Creatophora cinerea
Western red footed kestrel Falco vespertinus
White backed vulture Gyps africanus
White browed sparrow weaver Plocepassar mahali
White rumped swift Apus caffer
Whitebrowed sparrow weaver Plocepassar mahali
Whitefaced duck Dendrocygna viduata
Whitefaced owl Otus leucotis
Woodland kingfisher Halcyon senegalensis
Yellow billed kite milvus migrans parasitus
Yellow Canary Serinus flaviventris
Yellowbellied eremomela Eremomela icteropygialis
Yellowbilled hornbill Tockus flavirostris
Yellowbilled kite Milvus migrans parasitus



Table  SEQ Table \* ARABIC 6: List of common mammal species found on CCF farms (2005).

Common name Taxa
Aardvark Orycteropus afer
Aardwolf Proteles cristatus
African wild cat Felis lybica
Banded mongoose Mungos mungos
bateared fox Otocyon megalotis
Black backed jackal Canis mesomelas
Brown hyaena Hyaena brunnea
Burchell’s zebra Equus burcelli
Cape hare Pedeles capensis
Caracal Felis caracal
Chachma baboon Papio cynocephalus
Cheetah Acynonyx jubatus
Eland Taurotragus oryx
Girrafe Giraffa camelopardalis
Ground squirrel Xerus inauris
Honey badger Mellivora capensis
Kudu Tragelaphus strepsiceros
Leopard Panthera pardus
Lesser bushbaby Galago moholi
Oryx Oryx gazella
Pangolin Manis temminckii
Porcupine Hystix africaestralis
Red hartebeest Alcelaphus beselaphus
Serval Felis serval
Slender mongoose Galerella sanguinea
Small spotted genet Genetta genetta
Springbok Antidorcas marsupialis
Steenbok Madoqua kirkii
Striped polecat Ictonyx striatus
Warthog Phacochoerus aesthiopicus
Yellow mongoose Cynictis penicillata


Small mammals

Table  SEQ Table \* ARABIC 7: List of common small mammals found on CCF farms (2005).

Common name Taxa
Black tailed tree rat Thallomys nigricauda
Bushveld gerbil Tatera leugogaster
Desert pygmy mouse Mus indutus
Fat mouse Steatomys pratensis
Highveld gerbil Tatera brantsii
House mouse Mus musculus
Large-eared mouse Malacothrix typica
Lesser savanna door mouse Graphiurus parvus
Namaqua rock mouse Aesthomys namaquensis
Pouched mouse Saccostomus capestris
Pygmy hairy footed gerbil Gerbillurus paeba
Red veld rat Aesthomys chrysophylus
Rock door mouse Graphiurus platyops
Short tailed gerbil Desmodillus auricolaris
Single striped mouse Lemniscomys rosalia
Striped mouse Rhabdomys pumilio
Woodland door mouse Graphiurus murinus
Woosnam’s desert rat Aestomys woosnami


Map showing relative placement of farms.Management prescriptions

CCF Bush Pty Ltd will conduct operations as allowed on Cheetah Conservation Fund forest lands in the long term in ways compatible with FSC Principles and Criteria.  “Forest Lands” in this context are lands which are managed to some extent for production of biomass.

CCF Bush Pty Ltd will insure that forestry practices do not interfere with the research and farming activities on CCF farms.  This involves consultation with relevant projects and requires that consideration be given to fostering grass growth. Thus, large amounts of felled wood may be left un-chipped as protection for seedlings.  Run-off of rainwater into dams is to be encouraged.

CCF Bush Pty Ltd may harvest roadsides and fence lines to facilitate research/farm operations even if the wood will not be used in the factory.

CCF Bush Pty Ltd is a demonstration project: it may incur an ongoing annual loss and may undertake activities that have a negative effect on profitability of the company.

CCF Bush (Pty) Ltd will produce and market compacted wood fuel briquettes (Bushblok©), or other biomass products, derived from thinned indigenous invader species (bush encroachment). The products may be sold locally and internationally.

The raw product will be harvested from three farms owned by the Cheetah Conservation Fund  (Farms Cheetahview, Boskop, and Elandsvreugde).  These mixed-use farms are contiguous and adjacent to a main class “D” road: it is most economical to harvest from them. The total area of the farms is 17,445Ha.

Only bush harvested according to FSC™ principles and only originating from those three farms may be incorporated into the CCF BUSH Pty Ltd Chain of Custody (COC) scheme (CCF’s FSC™ license number FSC-C004580). Charcoal sold by Bushblok is not sold with an FSC™ claim or as FSC™ certified. This is our Forest Management Unit (FMU).

Cheetah Conservation Fund, the owner of CCF Bush Pty Ltd, manages five other farms. Two (Osonanga Reserve and Osonanga Farming) are ecological reserve lands and three (Bynaadar, Belebeno, and JanHelpman) are cattle ranches.  CCF Bush (Pty) Ltd will not undertake activities on those farms and has no responsibility for those farms.

CCF Bush mission statements are:

  • To promote the development of a biomass industry in Namibia that utilizes the invasive thornbush.
  • to harvest, chip and manufacture compacted fuel logs from indigenous invader timber species and market this quality “Bushblok” both locally and internationally;
  • to manufacture a product meeting with customer requirements in terms of source and specifications; furthermore, to introduce strict control systems to ensure that the product is sourced from certified farms belonging to CCF;
  • to introduce systems minimizing impact on the environment with respect to harvesting, chipping extraction and haulage of the chipped raw material.
  • to make strategic decisions following Forest Stewardship Council Principles and Criteria thereby preventing exploitation of indigenous bush;
  • to apply for valid harvest Permits issued by Namibian Directorate of Forestry; environmental considerations will always be foremost in the company’s decision- making process.
  • to give special consideration to ensure the optimal utilization of local labour resources, thus ensuring the local distribution of employment and benefits; the company undertakes to provide a safe and harmonious working environment for employees, thereby encouraging a prosperous, loyal and productive workforce.


CCF Bush Objectives are:

  • to develop an ecological and economical sustainable thinning programme to help restore natural savannah grasslands for the long term preservation of cheetah and other plains animals in Namibia;
  • to promote and when feasible to demonstrate the utilization of the encroaching bush for energy production and/or the production of products other than traditional charcoal.
  • to provide the facilities and management structure for employees to consistently meet budgeted production targets and quality specifications;
  • to inculcate the need to strictly adhere to CCF standards for Environmental Protection, Working Conditions and Health and Safety amongst the employees;
  • to provide opportunities to develop the entrepreneurial flair of locals as contractors for the company; assuring that appointed contractors adhere to CCF Bush’s obligation to uphold the Forest Stewardship Council’s Principles and Critreria in all operations;